Heat Damage

Burns can occur at temperatures as low as 120 degrees F. Typical wood fires burn around 300-400 degrees F. The biggest problem with small burns is not the damage but the pain. Second degree burns occur after 3 seconds at 140 degrees F. Third degree burns occur after 5 seconds at this temperature. A good rule of thumb is each 50 degree C causes 1 HP of damage per minute divided by the percent of the body covered (You won’t die by emmersing your hand in boiling water …). Each 100 Degrees Celcius over 50 Degrees causes 1 point of pain. For each missed success the character adds one penalty die to all rolls. Some sample temperatures are listed below:

Celcius Fahrenheit Description
50 122 Low heat for cooking
100 212 Water boils
150 302 Wood burns; Maximum survivable breathing air temp for short period without the presence of moisture.
250 482 Kerosene Ignites
300 572 Oil Ignites
500 932 Bronze Melts
950 1742 Silver melts
1000 1832 Copper, Glass, and Gold Melt
1300 2372 Steel
1550 2822 Iron Melts
1750 3182 Platinum Melts

1. TEMPERATURES AT FIRES

1.1 SOURCES OF IGNITION – GENERAL TEMPERATURES

Source Temperature
(Celsius)
Cigarettes – ventilated 400°-780°
Cigarettes – unventilated conditions 288°
Cigarettes – insulated
and smoldering
510°-621°
Match 600°-800°
Candle flame 600°-1400°
Stove element >550°
Fluorescent light 60°-80°
Incandescent light 100°-300°
Tungsten halogen light 600°-900°
Electrical arcing to 3750°
Electrical spark 1316°
Lightning 30000°
Oxyacetylene 3300°
Industrial furnaces 1700°
Bunsen burner 1570°

1.2 COLOR
TEMPERATURES OF HEAT

Dull red 500°-600°
Dark red 600°-800°
Bright red 800°-1000°
Yellow red 1000°-1200°
Bright yellow 1200°-1400°
White 1400°-1600°

1.3 TEMPERATURES
DURING BUILDING FIRES

Hot gas layer 600°-1000°
Floor temperature >180°
Glowing smoldering
combustion
to
600°
Flashover >600°
Glowing coals to
1300°

2. PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF MATERIALS

2.1 SOLIDS

2.1.1
VARIOUS MATERIALS

Reactions
to temperature exposure
Reaction Temperature
(Celsius)
Wood slowly chars* 120°-150°
Decayed wood ignites 150°
Ignition temp of
various woods
190°-260°
Paper yellows 150°
Paper ignites 218°-246°
Oil soaked lagging
ignites
190°-220°
Leather ignites 212°
Hay ignites 172°
Coal ignites 400°-500°
* wood chars at a
rate of approximately 30-50 mm/hour

2.1.2
PLASTICS

Melting
points and ignition temperatures
Plastic Melting
Point
Range
Ignition
Temperature
ABS 88°-125° 416°
Acrylics 91°-125° 560°
Cellulosics 49°-121° 475°-540°
Nylons 160°-275° 424°-532°
Polycarbonate 140°-150° 580°
Polyesters 220°-268° 432°-488°
Polyethylene ld 107°-124° 349°
Polyethylene hd 122°-137° 349°
Polypropylene 158°-168° 570°
Polystyrene 100°-120° 488°-496°
Polyurethanes 85°-121° 416°
PTFE 327° 530°
P.vinylideneclor 212° 454°
PVC 75°-110° 435°-557°
Wool 228°-230°
Cotton 250°
Rubber 260°-316°

2.1.3
METALS

Melting
points and flame colours
(o) & (r) denote oxidizing and reducing conditions respectively
Metal Melting
Point
Flame
Colour
Aluminium 660° Colorless
Copper 1080° Green
(o) Red (r)
Lead 327° Colorless
Tin 232° Colorless
Bismuth 271° Colorless
Zinc 419° Colorless
Aluminium alloy 600° Colorless
Antimony 630° Colorless
Magnesium 651° Colorless
Brass 900°-1000° Green
(o) Red (r)
Silver 961° Colorless
Bronze 1000° Green
(o) Red (r)
Gold 1063°
Cast iron 1200°-1350° Yellow-brown
Manganese 1260° Violet
(o)
Nickel 1450° Brown-Red
Cobalt 1490° Blue
Steel 1100°-1600° Brown-Red
Platinum 1770°
Titanium 1670°
Chromium 1900° Green
Tungsten 3410°
Solder 60/40 183°
Electric fuses 371°
Carbon 3730°
Pure iron 1535°

2.2 LIQUIDS

Boiling
points, flash points, ignition temperature and heat of combustion
Liquid Boiling
Point
Flash
Point
Ignition
Temperature
Heat
of Combustion
(kilocalories per gram)
Kerosene 175°-260° 38°-74° 229° 11
Gasoline 40°-190° -43° 257° 11.5
Stove oil 190°-290°
Diesel 190°-340° 69° 399°
Fuel 200°-350°
Brake fluid 190°
Engine oil 150°-230° 260°-371°
Acetone 57° -20° 465°
Benzene 80° -11° 560° 10
Octane 126° 13° 220° 11.4
Pet ether -18° 288°
Gum turpentine 37°
Spirit turpentine 135°-175° 35° 253°
Alcohol 78° 13° 365° 7.1
Ethylene glycol 111° 413°
Styrene 31°-37° 490°
White spirits 150°-200° 35° 232°
Asphalt 38°-121° 538°
Paint thinners 39° 245°
Paraffin wax 199°
* fire point is approximately
10°-50° above flash point
* cooking oil spontaneously
combusts at 310°-360°
* temperature of flame
from burning petrol is 471°-560°

2.3 GASES

Upper
& lower flammable limits & ignition temperature
Gas UFL
%
LFL
%
Ignition
Temperature
Propane 9.6 2.15 466°
Butane 8.5 1.9 405°
Natural gas 15 4.7 482°-632°
Hydrogen 75 4 400°
Acetylene 3 65 335°

Return to index



3. TEMPERATURE INDICATORS

3.1 STEEL

Appearance Temperature
Yellow 320°
Brown 350°
Purple 400°
Blue 450°
* steel starts to
weaken at 200°
* loses 50% of its
structural strength and sags at 550°
* melt point of steel
1100°-1650°

3.2 CONCRETE
AND CEMENT

Appearance Temperature
Reddish pink – reddish
brown
300°
Gray 300°-1000°
Buff >1000°
Sinters and yellowish >1200°
* sand and sandstone
becomes friable at 573°
* wall masonry collapses
at 760°

3.3 GLASS

Effect Soda Borosilicate
Very slight distortion 700° 750°
Slight distortion 750° 800°
Considerable distortion 800° 850°
Medium fluid flow 850° 900°
Liquid flow 900° 950°
* glass thermally
cracks at 90°-120°

3.4 MINERAL
WOOL INSULATION

Effect
Temperature
Resin chars &
slowly blackens
288°
Resin chars quickly 400°
Fibers becomes light
gray
482°
Fibers fuse 593°
Fibers melt 649°